Peer-Reviewed Publications


Sacks BN, Lounsberry ZL, Statham MJ.  2018. Nuclear genetic analysis of the red fox across its trans-Pacific range.  Journal of Heredity 109:573-584.

Black KM, Preckler-Quisquater S, Batter TJ, Anderson S, Sacks BN.  2018.  Occupancy, Habitat, and Abundance of the Sacramento Valley Red Fox. Journal of Wildlife Management. In Press.

Furnas BJ, Landers RH, Hill S, Itoga SS, Sacks BN.  2018. Integrated modeling to estimate population size and composition of mule deer.  Journal of Wildlife Management In Press

Akins, JA, Aubry KB, Sacks BN.  2018.  Genetic integrity, diversity, and population structure of the Cascade red fox in southern Washington.  Conservation Genetics, In Press.

Quinn CB, Akins JR, Hiller TL, Sacks BN.  2018. Predicting the potential distribution of the Sierra Nevada red fox in the Oregon Cascades.  Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management, In press.

Wallén J, Sacks BN, Statham MJ, Ågren E, Isomursu M, Flagstad Ø, Bjorneboe-Berg T, Norén K. 2018. Multiple recolonization routes towards the north: population history of the Fennoscandian red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society In Press.


Cairns KM, Brown SK, Sacks BN, Ballard JWO. 2017.  Conservation implications for dingoes from the maternal and paternal genome: multiple populations, dog introgression and demography.  Ecology and Evolution 7:9787–9807.

Rando H, Stutchmann JT, Bastounes ER, Johnson JL, Driscoll CA, Trut L, Sacks BN, Kukekova AV. 2017.  Y-chromosome markers for the red fox (Vulpes vulpes),  Journal of Heredity 108:678-685.

Yannic G, Statham M, Denoyelle L, Szor G, Qulaut G, Sacks BN, Lecomte N.  2017.  Investigating the ancestry of putative hybrids: a study case in the area of overlap between arctic and red foxes. Polar Biology 40:2055-2062.

Bose S, Forrester TD, Brazeal JL, Sacks BN, Casady DS, and Wittmer HU.  2017. Implications of fidelity and philopatry for the population structure of female black-tailed deer. Behavioral Ecology 28:983-990.

Mizzi JE, Lounsberry ZT, Brown CT and Sacks BN. 2017. Draft genome of tule elk Cervus elaphus nannodes [version 2; referees: 2 approved]. F1000Research 6:1691 (doi: 10.12688/f1000research.12636.1)

Sacks BN, Statham MJ, Wittmer HU.  2017.  A preliminary range-wide distribution model for the Sacramento Valley red fox (Vulpes vulpes patwin). Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management 8:28-38.

Green GA, Sacks BN, Erickson LJ, Aubry KB.  2017.  Genetic characteristics of red foxes in northeastern Oregon.  Northwestern Naturalist 98:73–81.

Merson C, Statham MJ, Janecka JE, Lopez RR, Silvy NJ, Sacks BN.  2017.  Distribution of native and nonnative ancestry in red foxes along an elevational gradient in central Colorado.  Journal of Mammalogy 98:365-377.

Brazeal JL, Weist T, Sacks BN.  2017.  Noninvasive genetic spatial capture-recapture for estimating deer population abundance. Journal of Wildlife Management 81:629-640.

Lounsberry ZT, Quinn CB, Angulo C, Kalani T, Tiller E, Sacks BN.  2017.  Investigating genetic introgression from farmed red foxes into the wild population in Newfoundland, Canada.  Conservation Genetics 18:383–392.

Norén K, Angerbjörn A, Wallén J, Meijer T, Sacks BN.  2017. Red foxes colonizing the tundra -genetic analysis as a tool for population management.  Conservation Genetics 18:359–370.


Statham MJ, Aamoth S, Barthman-Thompson L, Estrella S, Fresquez S, Hernandez LD, Tertes R, Sacks BN. 2016. Conservation genetics of the endangered San Francisco Bay endemic salt marsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris). Conservation Genetics 17:1055-1066.

Gulsby, W.D., Killmaster, C.H., Bowers, J.W., Laufenberg, J.S., Sacks, B.N., Statham, M.J., Miller, K.V.  2016.  Efficacy and precision of fecal genotyping to estimate coyote abundance in an area with a humid subtropical climate. Wildlife Society Bulletin 40:792-799

Sacks BN, Brazeal JL, Lewis JC.  2016. Landscape genetics of the nonnative red fox of California.  Ecology and Evolution 6:4775–4791.

Sacks BN, Lounsberry ZT, Kalani T, Meredith E, Langner C.  2016.  Development and characterization of 15 polymorphic di-nucleotide microsatellite markers for tule elk using HiSeq3000.  Journal of Heredity 107:666-669.

Buchalski, M.R., Sacks, B.N., Gille, D.A., Penedo, M.C.T., Ernest, H.B., Morrison, S.A., Boyce, W.M.  2016.  Phylogeography and population genetic structure of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis spp.) in North American deserts.  Journal of Mammalogy 97:823–838.

Kasprowicz AE, Statham MJ, Sacks BN.  2016.  The fate of the other red coat: remnants of colonial British red foxes in the Eastern United States.  Journal of Mammalogy 97:298-309.

Grigg EK, Nibblett BM, Sacks BN, Hack R, Serpell JA, Hart L.  2016. Genetic and behavioral characteristics of the St. Kitts ‘island dog.’  Applied Animal Behaviour Science 178:88-95.


Hiller, T.L., McFadden-Hiller, J.E., Sacks, B.N.  2015. Preliminary survey for the Sierra Nevada red fox in the northern Cascades of Oregon.  Northwest Science 89:409-431

Brown SK, Darwent CM, Wictum EJ, and Sacks BN.  2015. Using multiple markers to elucidate the ancient, historical, and modern relationships among North American Arctic dog breeds. Heredity 115:488-495.

Miles, K.A., Holtz, M., Lounsberry, Z.L., and Sacks, B.N.  2015.  A Paired Comparison of Scat-Collecting versus Scat-Swabbing Methods for Noninvasive Recovery of Mesocarnivore DNA in an Arid Environment.  Wildlife Society Bulletin 39:797-803.

Pedersen NC, Brucker L, Tessier NG, Liu H, Penedo MCT, Hughes S, Oberbauer A, and Sacks BN. 2015. The effect of genetic bottlenecks and inbreeding on the incidence of two major autoimmune diseases in standard poodles, sebaceous adenitis and Addison’s disease. Canine Genetics and Epidemiology 2:14.

Gabriel MW, LW Woods, GM Wengert, JN Stephenson, JM Higley, C Thompson, SM Matthews, RA Sweitzer, K Purcell, RH Barrett, SM Keller, P Gaffney, M Jones, R Poppenga, JE Foley, RN Brown, D Clifford, BN Sacks.  2015.  Patterns of Natural and Human-Caused Mortality Factors of a Rare Forest Carnivore, The Fisher (Pekania pennanti) in California.  PLoS ONE 10(11): e0140640.

Goddard NS, Statham MJ, Sacks BN.  2015. Mitochondrial analysis of the most basal canid reveals deep divergence between eastern and western North American gray foxes (Urocyon spp.) and ancient roots in Pleistocene California.  PLoS ONE 10(8) e0136329.

Fielding WJ, Mundle M, Brown SK, Sacks BN. 2015. Using DNA to locate the ancestry of today’s island dogs of the Caribbean: the case of the Bahamian Potcake.  International Journal of the Bahamas 21:27-37.

Safra N, Hayward LJ, Aguilar M, Sacks BN, Westropp JL, Mohr FC, Mellersh CS, Bannasch DL.  2015.  DNA sequence variants in the five prime untranslated region of the Cyclooxygenase-2 gene are commonly found in healthy dogs and gray wolves. PLoS ONE 10(8) e0133127.

Norén, K., Statham, M., Ågren, E., Isomursu, M., Flagstad, O., Eide, N., Berg, T., Bech-Sanderhoff, L., Sacks, B. 2015.  Genetic footprints reveal geographic patterns of expansion in Fennoscandian red foxes.  Global Change Biology 21:3299–3312.

Berteaux D, Gallant D, Sacks BN, Statham MJ.  2015.  Red foxes at their expanding front in the Canadian Arctic have indigenous maternal ancestry. Polar Biology 38:913-917.

Gulsby, W.D., Killmaster, C.H., Bowers, J.W., Kelly, J.D., Sacks, B.N., Statham, M.J., Miller, K.V. 2015.  White-tailed deer fawn recruitment before and after an experimental coyote removal in central Georgia.  Wildlife Society Bulletin 39:248–255

Volkmann, L.A., Statham, M.J., Mooers, A. Ø., Sacks, B.N.  2015.  Genetic distinctiveness of red foxes in the Intermountain West as revealed through expanded mitochondrial sequencing.  Journal of Mammalogy 96:297-307.

Lounsberry ZT, Brown SK, Collins PW, Henry RW, Newsome SD, Sacks BN.  2015.  Next-generation sequencing workflow for assembly of non-model mitogenomes exemplified with North Pacific Albatrosses (Phoebastria spp.)  Molecular Ecology Resources 15:893-902.


Kehoe SP, Chomel BB, Stuckey MJ, Kasten RW, Balakrishnan N, Sacks BN, Breitschwerdt EB.  2014.  Molecular identification of zoonotic Bartonella species in aortic and mitral valves of healthy coyotes.  Emerging Infectious Diseases 20:2133–2136.

Statham MJ, Murdoch J, Janecka J, Aubry KB,  Edwards CJ, Soulsbury CD,  Berry O, Wang Z, Harrison D, Pearch M, Tomsett L, Chupasko J, Sacks BN.  2014.  Range-wide multilocus phylogeography of the red fox reveals ancient continental divergence, minimal genomic exchange, and distinct demographic histories.  Molecular Ecology 23:4813–4830.

Wengert GM, Gabriel MW, Matthews S,  Higley JM, Sweitzer RA, Thompson CM, Purcell KL, Barrett RH, Woods LW, Green RE, Keller SM, Gaffney PM, Jones M, Sacks BN.  2014.  Using DNA to describe and quantify interspecific killing of fishers in California.  Journal of Wildlife Management 78:603-611.

Hernandez LD, Lounsberry ZT, Collins PW, Henry RW, Newsome SD, Sacks BN.  2014.  Development and characterization of 15 polymorphic microsatellite markers for North Pacific albatrosses using paired-end Illumina shotgun sequencing.  Conservation Genetics Resources 6:491–493.

Reponen SEM, Statham MJ, Thompson L, Sacks BN. 2014.  Microsatellite primer development for the salt marsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris) and cross-amplification in the Western harvest mouse (R. megalotis).  Conservation Genetics Resources 6:285-287.

Reponen SEM, Brown SK, Barnett BD, Sacks BN.  2014.  Genetic and morphometric evidence on a Galápagos Island exposes founder effects and diversification in the first-known (truly) feral dog population.  Molecular Ecology 23:269–283.

Spicer AM, Jun TJ, Sacks BN, Wictum EJ. 2014.  Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Heteroplasmy Levels in Domestic Dog Hair.  Forensic Science International: Genetics 11:7-12.


Wengert G, Gabriel M, Foley J, Kun T, Sacks BN.  2013.  Molecular techniques for identifying intraguild predators of fishers and other North American small carnivores.  Wildlife Society Bulletin 37:659-663.

Sacks BN, Stephens D, Brown SK, Pedersen NC, Wu J-T, Berry O. 2013.  Y chromosome analysis of dingoes and Southeast Asian village dogs suggests a continental Neolithic expansion from Southeast Asia followed by multiple Austronesian dispersals. Molecular Biology and Evolution 30:1103-1118.

Kun T, Lyons LA, Sacks BN, Ballard RE, Lindquist C, Wictum EJ.  2013.   Developmental validation of Mini-DogFiler for degraded canine DNA.  Forensic Science International: Genetics 7:151-158.

Brown SK, Darwent CM, Sacks BN.  2013.  Ancient DNA Evidence for Genetic Continuity in Arctic Dogs. Journal of Archaeological Science 40:1279-1288.

Pedersen NC, Liu H, Theilen GH, Sacks BN.  2013.  The effects of dog breed development on genetic diversity and the relative influences of performance and conformation breeding.  Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 130:236-248.

Wictum EJ, Kun T, Lindquist C, Malvek J, Vankan D, Sacks BN.  2013.  Developmental validation of DogFiler, a novel multiplex for canine DNA profiling in forensic casework Forensic Science International: Genetics. 7:82-91.


Edwards CJ, Soulsbury CD, Statham MJ, Ho SY, Wall D, Dolf G, Iossa G, Baker PJ, Harris S, Sacks BN, Bradley DG.  2012.  Temporal genetic variation of the red fox, Vulpes vulpes, across western Europe and the British Isles.  Quaternary Science Reviews 57:95-104.

Gabriel MW, Woods LW, Poppenga R, Sweitzer RA, Thompson C, Matthews SM, Higley JM. Keller SM, Purcell K, Barrett RH, Wengert GM, Sacks BN, Clifford DL. 2012.  Anticoagulant Rodenticides on our Public and Community Lands: Spatial Distribution of Exposure and Poisoning of a Rare Forest Carnivore. PLoS ONE, 7, e40163. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0040163

Imes, DL, Allard, M., Wictum, B., Penedo, C., Sacks BN.  2012.  Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms within the mtDNA genome of the domestic dog to discriminate individuals with common HVI haplotypes.  Forensic Science International: Genetics, 6, 630-639.

Statham, M. J., Sacks, B. N., Aubry, K. A., Perrine, J. D., Wisely, S.M.  2012.  The origin of recently established red fox populations in the contiguous United States:  Translocations or natural range expansions?  Journal of Mammalogy, 93:52-65.

Statham, M. J., Rich, A. C., Lisius, S. K., Sacks, B. N. 2012.  Discovery of a remnant population of Sierra Nevada red fox (Vulpes vulpes necator).  Northwest Science 86:122-132

Pedersen NC, Liu H, McLaughlin B, Sacks BN. 2012.  Genetic characterization of healthy and sebaceous adenitis affected Standard Poodles from the United States and the United Kingdom.  Tissues Antigens, 80, 46–57.


Brown SK, Pedersen NC, Jafarishorijeh S, Bannasch DL, Ahrens KD, Wu J-T, Okon M, Sacks BN. 2011. Phylogenetic Distinctiveness of Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian Village Dog Y Chromosomes Illuminates Dog Origins. PLoS ONE, 6, e28496.

Sacks, B. N., Moore M., Statham, M. J., Wittmer H. U.  2011.  A restricted hybrid zone between native and introduced red fox (Vulpes vulpes) populations suggests reproductive barriers and competitive exclusion. Molecular Ecology 20:326-341.

Statham M.J., Trut L., Sacks B. N., Kharlamova A., Oskina I., Gulievich R, Johnson J, Temnykh S, Acland G, Kukekova A. 2011.  On the origin of a domesticated species: Identifying the parent population of Russian silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes).  Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 103:168-175.


Sacks, B. N., M. J, Statham, J. D. Perrine, S.M. Wisely, Aubry, K. A.  2010.  North American montane red foxes: expansion, fragmentation, and the origin of the Sacramento Valley red fox.  Conservation Genetics 11:1523-1539.

Moore M., S. K. Brown, B. N. Sacks.  2010.  Thirty-one short red fox (Vulpes vulpes) microsatellite markers.  Molecular Ecology Resources 10:404-408.

Hull J, A Hull, J Keane, S Mori, B Sacks, A Fish.  2010.  Estimation of species identification error: implications for raptor migration counts and trend estimation. Journal of Wildlife Management


Sacks, B. N., D. I. Våge, M. J, Statham. 2009. A medium-throughput SNP assay for detecting genetic variation in coding and non-coding portions of the red fox genome.  Conservation Genetics Resources 1:459-463.

Aubry, K. A., M. J, Statham, B. N. Sacks, J. D. Perrine, and S.M. Wisely.  2009.  Phylogeography of the North American red fox: vicariance in Pleistocene forest refugia.  Molecular Ecology 18: 2668–2686.


Sacks, B. N., D. L. Bannasch, B. B. Chomel, and H. B. Ernest.  2008Coyotes demonstrate how habitat specialization by individuals of a generalist species can diversify populations in a heterogeneous ecoregion.  Molecular Biology and Evolution 25:1384-1394.

Hull, J. M., C. A.  Hull, B. N. Sacks, J. P. Smith, H. B. Ernest.  2008.  Landscape characteristics influence morphological and genetic differentiation in a widespread raptor (Buteo jamaicensis).  Molecular Ecology 17:810-824.

Sacks, B. N., and S. Louie.  2008.  Using the dog genome to find SNPs in red foxes and other distantly related members of the Canidae.  Molecular Ecology Resources 8:35-49.


Sacks, B. N., and J. C. C. Neale.  2007. Coyote abundance, sheep predation, and wild prey correlates illuminate Mediterranean trophic dynamics.  Journal of Wildlife Management71:2404-2411.

Perrine, J. D., J. P. Pollinger, B. N. Sacks, R. H. Barrett, and R. K. Wayne.  2007.  Genetic evidence for the persistence of the critically endangered Sierra Nevada red fox in California.  Conservation Genetics 8: 1083-1095.

Neale, J. C. C., B. N. Sacks, and K. M. Blejwas.  2007.  Coyote movements relative to territory boundaries: An experiment in the field.  American Midland Naturalist 158:162–167.


Takekawa, J. Y., B. N. Sacks, I. Woo, M. L. Johnson, and G. D. Wylie.  2006.  Tidal marsh fragmentation and persistence of San Pablo song sparrows (Melospiza melodia samuelis): assessing benefits of wetland restoration in San Francisco Bay.  Studies in Avian Biology32:238-246.

Sacks, B. N., H. B. Ernest, and E. E. Boydston.  2006.  San Francisco’s Golden Gate: A bridge between historically distinct coyote (Canis latrans) populations?  Western North American Naturalist  66:263-264.


Sacks, B. N., B. R. Mitchell, C. L. Williams, and H. B. Ernest.  2005.  Coyote movements and social structure along a cryptic population genetic subdivision.  Molecular Ecology 14:1241-1249.

Sacks, B. N.  2005.  Reproduction and body condition in California coyotes (Canis latrans).  Journal of Mammalogy 86:1036-1041..

Padgett, K. A., S. A. Nadler, L. Munson, B. N. Sacks, and W. M. Boyce.  2005.  Systematics of Mesocestoides (Cestoda: Mesocestoididae): Evaluation of molecular and morphological variation among isolates.  Journal of Parasitology 91:1435-1443.

Foley, J. E., E, V, Queen, B. N. Sacks, P. Foley.  2005.  GIS-facilitated spatial epidemiology of tick-borne diseases of coyotes (Canis latrans) in northern and coastal California.  Comparative Immunology, Microbiology, & Infectious Diseases 28:197-212.

Beldomenico, P. E., B. B. Chomel, J. E. Foley, B. N. Sacks, C. J. Baldi, R. W. Kasten, I. A. Gardner.  2005.  Environmental factors associated with Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii seropositivity in ree-ranging coyotes from northern California.  Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 5:110-119.


Sacks, B. N., S. K. Brown, and H. B. Ernest.  2004.  Population structure of California coyotes corresponds to habitat-specific breaks and illuminates species history.  Molecular Ecology 13:1265-1275.

Sacks, B. N., B. B. Chomel, and R. W. Kasten.  2004.  Modeling the distribution and abundance of the nonnative parasite, canine Heartworm, in California coyotes.  Oikos105:415-425.


Sacks, B. N., D. L. Woodward, and A. E. Colwell.  2003.  A long-term study of non-native-heartworm transmission among coyotes in a Mediterranean ecosystem.  Oikos 102:478-490..

Sacks, B.N., and E. P. Caswell-Chen.  2003.  Reconstructing the spread of Dirofilaria immitis in California coyotes.  Journal of Parasitology 89:319-323.

Hoar, B. R., B. B. Chomel, D. L. Rolfe, C. C. Chang, C. L. Fritz, B. N. Sacks, and T. E. Carpenter.  2003.  Spatial analysis of Yersinia pestis and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii seroprevalence in California coyotes (Canis latrans).  Preventive Veterinary Medicine 56:299-311.


Sacks, B.N., B. B. Chomel, R. W. Kasten, C. C. Chang, R. K. Sanders, and S. D. Leterme.  2002.  Validation for use with coyotes (Canis latrans) of a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Dirofilaria immitis. Veterinary Parasitology 109:45-58.

Sacks, B. N., and J. C. C. Neale.  2002.  Foraging strategy of a generalist predator toward special prey: sheep in the coyote diet.  Ecological Applications 12:299-306.

Blejwas, K. M., B. N. Sacks., M. M. Jaeger, and D. R. McCullough.  2002.  The effectiveness of selective removal of breeding coyotes in reducing sheep predation. Journal of Wildlife Management 66:451-462.


Jaeger, M.M., K.M. Blejwas, B.N. Sacks, J.C.C. Neale, M.C. Conner, and D. R. McCullough.  2001.  Targeting alphas can make coyote control more effective and socially acceptable.  California Agriculture 55:32-36.

Neale, J. C. C., and B. N. Sacks.  2001. Food habits and space use of gray foxes in relation to sympatric coyotes and bobcats.  Canadian Journal of Zoology 79:1794-1800.

Sacks, B. N. and J. C. C. Neale.  2001.  Does paternal care of pups benefit breeding female coyotes (Canis latrans)?  Southwestern Naturalist 46:121-126.

Neale, J. C. C., and B. N. Sacks.  2001.  Resource utilization and interspecific relations of sympatric bobcats and coyotes.  Oikos 94:236-249.


Sacks, B. N., and K. M. Blejwas.  2000.  Effects of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) on body condition and activity of free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans).  Canadian Journal of Zoology 78:1042-1051.


Sacks, B. N., M. M. Jaeger, J. C. C. Neale, and D. R. McCullough.  1999.  Territoriality and breeding status of coyotes relative to predation on sheep.  Journal of Wildlife Management63:593-605.

Sacks, B. N., K. M. Blejwas, and M. M. Jaeger.  1999.  Relative vulnerability of coyotes to removal methods on a northern California ranch.  Journal of Wildlife Management 63:939-949.


Sacks, B. N.  1998.  Increasing prevalence of heartworm in coyotes from California.   Journal of Wildlife Diseases 34:386-389.

Neale, J. C. C., B. N. Sacks, M. M. Jaeger, and D. R. McCullough.  1998.  A comparison of bobcat and coyote predation on lambs.  Journal of Wildlife Management 62:700-706.

Lynn, S., M. L. Morrison, A. J. Kuenzi, J. C. C. Neale, B. N. Sacks, R. Hamlin, and L. S. Hall.  1998.  Bird use of riparian vegetation along the Truckee River, California and Nevada.  Great Basin Naturalist 58:328-343.

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